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celui-ci or celui-là

Do you say celui-ci or celle-ci - this one? How about celui-là or celle-là - that one? Enjoy this computer game on demonstrative pronouns.

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French Textbook

Gender of Countries

AUDIO below

.

Knowing what gender a country or a place is is not easy, and not consistent. However, here is a guideline I hope you find helpful.

  • Almost all countries and states that end with an –e (except for le Mexique) are feminine.
  • Pretty much all others are masculine.
  • These 2 previous rules do NOT apply for islands. Nope!

Islands pretty much move the beat of their own drummer.

  • Cities are tricky. You hear both

“le nouveau Paris” (m), and “Paris est une belle ville” (f).

.

  • country --> pays[1] (m)
  1. Australia --> l’Australie (f)
  2. Belgium --> la Belgique (f)
  3. Canada --> le Canada (m)
  4. China --> la Chine (f)
  5. Costa Rica --> le Costa Rica (m)
  6. France --> la France (f)
  7. Germany --> l’Allemagne (f)
  8. Guatemala --> le Guatemala (m)
  9. Honduras --> le Honduras (m)
  10. Ireland --> l’Irlande (f)
  11. Japan --> le Japon (m)
  12. Mexico --> le Mexique (m)
  13. the Netherlands --> les Pays-Bas (mp)
  14. New Zealand --> la Nouvelle Zélande (f)
  15. South Africa --> l’Afrique du Sud (f)
  16. Spain --> l’Espagne (f)
  17. Switzerland --> la Suisse (f)
  18. Turkey --> la Turquie (f)
  19. United Kingdom --> la Grande Bretagne (f)
  20. the United States --> les États-Unis (mp)

[1] Remember that countries/states in French always have an article: France = la France

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AUDIO

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Manuel

Combination of letters in French

Combination of letters

Combination of letters in French words in English. How do French words sound? How are French words pronounced? It’s really easy to learn with Anne's list. Copy her French accent.

Semaine 3

Les mots en français ne sont pas toujours intuitifs.

French words don’t always look the way they sound. They may combine letters to make a new sound. Let’s go over the most common ones here.

For instance,

EAU is pronounced O, such as in

EAU --> water

BEAU --> beautiful

CU is pronounced KU, such as in

CUBE --> cube

but ÇU is pronounced SU, such as in

REÇU --> received

My take on how to pronounce French words is to look at the chart below and then, one by one, to memorize each word as they come to you.

looks like sounds like French example English translation
ai short open eight ai have
an, en bump banc bench
au, eau short rounded ‘oh’ haut high
ca ka cas case
ça sa ça it (contraction of ‘cela’)
ch sh chat cat
ci see ici here
co ko comment how
çon song garçon boy
cu ku cube cub

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Related: English words in French . French words in English .

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About Paris

Construction de la Tour Eiffel

La tour a été construite en deux ans.

The tower was built in two years.

. Version smartphone .

 

French Textbook

écouter, to listen to – all tenses

J’écoute toujours de la musique en faisant mes devoirs.

I always listen to music when I do my homework.

AUDIO below, by a native speaker.

ÉCOUT- is the root of the verb

-ER is the ending of the verb

 

Indicatif - Indicative Mode statements
présent present tense
j’écoute I listen to*
je n’écoute pas I’m not listening to
j’écoute I listen to
tu écoutes you listen to
elle écoute she listens to
il écoute he/it listens to
on écoute we listen to
nous écoutons we listen to
vous écoutez you listen to
elles écoutent they listen to
ils écoutent they listen to
*also I’m listening to…
imparfait imperfect
j’écoutais I used to listen to*
je n’écoutais pas I wasn’t listening to
j’écoutais I used to listen to
tu écoutais you used to listen to
elle écoutait she used to listen to
il écoutait he/it used to listen to
on écoutait we used to listen to
nous écoutions we used to listen to
vous écoutiez you used to listen to
elles écoutaient they used to listen to
ils écoutaient they used to listen to
•also I was listeining to, I would listen to…
passé composé preterit or present perfect
j’ai écouté I listened to*
je n’ai pas écouté I didn’t listen to
j’ai écouté I listened to
tu as écouté you listened to
elle a écouté she listened to
il a écouté he/it listened to
on a écouté we listened to
nous avons écouté we listened to
vous avez écouté you listened to
elles ont écouté they listened to
ils ont écouté they listened to
*also I have listened to…
futur simple future tense
j’écouterai I will listen to
je n’écouterai pas I won’t listen to
j’écouterai I will listen to
tu écouteras you will listen to
elle écoutera she will listen to
il écoutera he/it will listen to
on écoutera we will listen to
nous écouterons we will listen to
vous écouterez you will listen to
elles écouteront they will listen to
ils écouteront they will listen to
passé proche near past
je viens d’écouter I just listened to
je ne viens pas d’écouter I didn’t just listen to
je viens d’écouter I just listened to
tu viens d’écouter you just listened to
elle vient d’écouter she just listened to
il vient d’écouter he/it just listened to
on vient d’écouter we just listened to
nous venons d’écouter we just listened to
vous venez d’écouter you just listened to
elles viennent d’écouter they just listened to
ils viennent d’écouter they just listened to
futur proche near future
je vais écouter I’m going to listen to
je ne vais pas écouter I’m not going to listen to
je vais écouter I’m going to listen to
tu vas écouter you‘re going to listen to
elle va écouter she’s going to listen to
il va écouter he/it’s going to listen to
on va écouter we‘re going to listen to
nous allons écouter we‘re going to listen to
vous allez écouter you‘re going to listen to
elles vont écouter they’re going to listen to
ils vont écouter they‘re going to listen to
plus-que-parfait pluperfect
j’avais écouté I had listened to
je n’avais pas écouté I hadn’t listened to
j’avais écouté I had listened to
tu avais écouté you had listened to
elle avait écouté she had listened to
il avait écouté he/it had listened to
on avait écouté we had listened to
nous avions écouté we had listened to
vous aviez écouté you had listened to
elles avaient écouté they had listened to
ils avaient écouté they had listened to
futur antérieur future perfect, past future
j’aurai écouté I will have listened to
je n’aurai pas écouté I won’t have listened to
j’aurai écouté I will have listened to
tu auras écouté you will have listened to
elle aura écouté she will have listened to
il aura écouté he/it will have listened to
on aura écouté we will have listened to
nous aurons écouté we will have listened to
vous aurez écouté you will have listened to
elles auront écouté they will have listened to
ils auront écouté they will have listened to
passé simple literary past
j’écoutai I ‘did'* listen to
je n’écoutai pas I didn’t listen to
j’écoutai I ‘did' listen to
tu écoutas you ‘did’ listen to
elle écouta she ‘did’ listen to
il écouta he/it ‘did’ listen to
on écouta we ‘did’ listen to
nous écoutâmes we ‘did’ listen to
vous écoutâtes you ‘did’ listen to
elles écoutèrent they ‘did’ listen to
ils écoutèrent they ‘did’ listen to
*also I listened to…
Impératif - Imperative Mode commands and requests
impératif présent present command form
Écoute ! Listen!
N’écoute pas ! Don’t listen!
Écoute ! Listen!
Écoutons ! Let’s listen!
Écoutez ! Listen!
Conditionnel - Conditional Mode hypothesis and conditions
conditionnel présent present conditional
j’écouterais I would listen to
je n’écouterais pas I wouldn’t listen to
j’écouterais I would listen to
tu écouterais you would listen to
elle écouterait she would listen to
il écouterait he/it would listen to
on écouterait we would listen to
nous écouterions we would listen to
vous écouteriez you would listen to
elles écouteraient they would listen to
ils écouteraient they would listen to
conditionnel passé past conditional
j’aurais écouté I would have listened to
je n’aurais pas écouté I wouldn’t have listened to
j’aurais écouté I would have listened to
tu aurais écouté you would have listened to
elle aurait écouté she would have listened to
il aurait écouté he/it would have listened to
on aurait écouté we would have listened to
nous aurions écouté we would have listened to
vous auriez écouté you would have listened to
elles auraient écouté they would have listened to
ils auraient écouté they would have listened to
Subjonctif - Subjunctive Mode subjectivity, emotions, feelings, demands, wishes, hopes
subjonctif présent present subjunctive
que j’écoute that I listen to
que je n’écoute pas that I not listen to
que j’écoute that I listen to
que tu écoutes that you listen to
qu’elle écoute that she listen to
qu’il écoute that he/it listen to
qu’on écoute that we listen to
que nous écoutions that we listen to
que vous écoutiez that you listen to
qu’elles écoutent that they listen to
qu’ils écoutent that they listen to
Participe - Participle Mode verb as an adjective or added information
participe présent present participle
(en) écoutant (while) listening to
(en) n’écoutant pas (while) not listening to
participes passé past participles
écouté/e listened to
(en) ayant écouté (while) having listened to
(en) n’ayant pas écouté (while) not having listened to

 

Related: Tenses and modes . 52 Very First French Verbs .

AUDIO

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Manuel

Present tense – Irregular verbs – Formation

saint germain, french irregular verbs

Je suis dans le 5ième.

Irregular verbs – Present tense

How do irregular verbs work? How are they conjugated?

Irregular verbs in the present tense have to be memorized one by one. Fortunately, there are only 8 you need to know.

1.AVOIR

2.ÊTRE

3.FAIRE

4.ALLER

5.SAVOIR

6.VALOIR

7.FALLOIR

8.PLEUVOIR

 

.1

AVOIR

pronoun

conjugation

English

j’

ai

I have

tu

as

you have

elle

a

she has

il

a

he/it has

on

a

we have

nous

avons

we have

vous

avez

you have

ils

ont

they have

elles

ont

they have

 In context

I have a big house. -- J’ai une grande maison.

We don’t have any red wine. -- Nous n’avons pas de vin rouge. (On n’a pas de vin rouge. [more colloquial])

.2

ÊTRE

pronoun

conjugation

English

je

suis

I am

tu

es

you are

elle

est

she is

il/c’

est

he/it is

on

est

we are

nous

sommes

we are

vous

êtes

you are

ils

sont

they are

elles

sont

they are

In context

I am tired. -- Je suis fatiguée.

We are at the hotel. -- Nous sommes à l’hôtel. // On est à l’hôtel.

Note: to say your age in French, don’t use TO BE, use TO HAVE instead

I AM 40 years old --> J’AI 40 ans.

.3

FAIRE

FAIRE has a /Z/ sound (only one S). Watch the VOUS form.

pronoun

conjugation

English

je

fais

I make

tu

fais

you make

elle

fait

she makes

il

fait

he/it makes

on

fait

we make

nous

faisons

we make

vous

faites

you make

ils

font

they make

elles

font

they make

In contextI am making a cake. Je fais un gâteau.

We do the dishes. Nous faisons la vaisselle. (On fait la vaisselle.)

Note:the nous form is spelled nous faisons, but is pronounced nous f[e]sons

.4

ALLER

pronoun

conjugation

je

vais

tu

vas

elle

va

il/ça

va

on

va

nous

allons

vous

allez

ils

vont

elles

vont

In context

I go to France this summer. -- Je vais en France cet été.

We’re going to Brittany on a bicycle tour. -- Nous allons en Bretagne pour faire du vélo. (On va en Bretagne pour faire du vélo.)

.5

SAVOIR

pronoun

conjugation

English

je

sais

I know

tu

sais

you know

elle

sait

she knows

il

sait

he/it knows

on

sait

we know

nous

savons

we know

vous

savez

you know

ils

savent

they know

elles

savent

they know

 In context

I know how to speak French. -- Je sais parler français.

We know. -- Nous savons. (On sait.)

Note:       Savoir means to know how to do something, to know a fact, to know by heart. It is often mixed up with Connaître, because both Savoir and Connaître mean to know. Connaître means to know someone, to be familiar with someone or something.

.6

VALOIR

pronoun

conjugation

English

je

vaux

I am worth

tu

vaux

you are worth

elle

vaut

she is worths

il

vaut

he/it is worths

on

vaut

we are worth

nous

valons

we are worth

vous

valez

you are worth

ils

valent

they are worth

elles

valent

they are worth

In context

It’s not worth much anymore. -- Il ne vaut plus grand chose.

.7

FALLOIR

FALLOIR is a very funny verb. It is used only in the third person singular – il/ça – an impersonal form.

pronoun

conjugation

English

il

faut

it is necessary

In context

It is necessary to go soon. [We have to go soon.] -- Il faut y aller bientôt.

.8

PLEUVOIR

PLEUVOIR is a very funny verb. It is used only in the third person singular – il/ça – an impersonal form. Weather verbs generally follow the same pattern.

pronoun

conjugation

English

il

pleut

it rains / it is raining

In context

It rains in France. -- Il pleut en France.

Other rules for the present tense in French

Full French conjugations

. French podcast, French vocabulary, French grammar, French culture, about French about France .

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